Research

The role of the Community Resiliency Model skills trainings in trauma healing among 1994 Tutsi genocide survivors in Rwanda

Samuel HABIMANA, Evariste MUSEKA, and Emmanuel BIRACYAZA,

Rwanda Resilience and Grounding Organization.

Emmanuel HABUMUGISHA, Rwanda, National  Commission for Children.

Jean MUTABARUKA, University of Rwanda, Clinical Psychology Department.

Abstract

The presence and intensity of symptoms of Secondary Traumatic Stress before and after Community Resiliency Model(CRM) skills Trainings were studied among 1994  genocide survivors from three districts of southern province of Rwanda, Huye, Nyamagabe and Nyaruguru. The role of the Community Resiliency Model skills trainings was also studied. An experimental group made up of One hundred and thirty genocide survivors (130) including 73 females and 57 males aged between 25 and 65 years old and a control group made up of one hundred twenty (120) participants including 67 females and 53 males aged between 25 and 65 years old participated in this study. All participants experienced genocide and had lost some of their close family relatives and friends in the 1994 Genocide against Tutsi in Rwanda. Secondary Traumatic Stress was assessed using Pre-Training Participation Questionnaire (PTPQ; α: 0.81) and Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale (STSS; α: 0.80); Depression symptoms were assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9; α: 0.80); Community Resiliency Models skills were assessed using a self-constructed questionnaire with six CRM skills components (CRMQ; α: 0.75).The intensity of trauma symptoms among participants before CRM skills training was higher in the two groups of participants. After the CRM skills trainings, there was a significant difference of trauma symptoms in an experimental group of participants. Among the experimental group, the trauma symptoms were significantly decreased (t=37, p=.000). CRM skills seem to contribute to trauma healing and to improve mental health quality.

Keywords: CRM, Trauma resilience, Genocide survivors, Trauma healing