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The profile of risk factors of injecting drug use among the sample of high risk of HIV/AIDS (MSM, FSW, and IDUs) in Kigali, Rwanda.

Samuel Habimana1,2, Zephon Lister1, Susanne Montgomery1, Emmanuel Biracyaza2,4, Aprodis Kagaba 3, Albert Ndagijimana4, Stefan Jansen5, and Eugene Rutembesa5

1.Loma Linda University, School of Behavioral Health, USA

2.Rwanda Resilience and Grounding Organization, Rwanda

3.Health Development Initiatives, Rwanda

4.The University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Science, School of Public Health, Rwanda

5.The University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Science, School of Health Sciences, Department of Clinical Psychology, Rwanda

Abstract

Background: While injecting drug use practices remains public health concerns associated with sociodemographic characteristics, mental health problems, and substance use, quantifying its relationship with multiple drug-related issues is scary. None investigated the factors related to injecting drug users among the population at high risk of HIV/AIDS in Rwanda. Therefore, our study scrutinized the relationship between socio-demographics, alcohol dependence or alcohol abuse, Substance dependence or substance abuse (non-alcohol), depression, and psychosocial characteristics among intravenous drug use within a high HIV risk population.

Methods: A cross-sectional study design and snowball sampling techniques were applied among 480 participants from Kigali city between 15th November 2018 and 15th February 2019. Of 480 respondents, 31.5% (n=151) were Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) while 68.5% (n=329) were not IDUs.

Results: Regarding depression, 81.5% of IDUs reported experiencing moderate to severe depressive symptoms compared to 65.3% among non-IDU. Regarding depression, 81.5% of IDUs reported experiencing moderate to severe depressive symptoms compared to 65.3% among non-IDU. The results revealed that substance dependence and substance abuse (non-alcohol) with AOR =4.42, 95%CI (1.851—10.55), p=0.001; Sought treatment of substance abuse with AOR= 2.46, at 95%CI (1.541—3.93) P=0.001 were a high odd risk for injecting drug use while the depression symptoms with AOR= 0.97, at 95% CI (0.951 -0.98), P=0.001, alcohol dependence or alcohol abuse, and with AOR 0.36, at 95% of CI (0.241—0.55) were less likely to be associated with IDUs compared to their counterparts. The family history of substance abuse is not statistically significant for predicting IDUs with AOR=0.38 at 95% CI (1.191—1.76), p=0.32.

Conclusion: The results show that depression symptoms, and alcohol and drug dependence are irresistible problems that should not be disregarded among IDUs. Mental health education programs are urgently compulsory in this population.

Keywords: Injecting; Drugs; Depression; HIV/AIDS; MSM; FSW.

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